Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.
Global average air temperature near the Earth's surface rose 0.74 ± 0.18 ° (1.3 ± 0.32 °F) ring the past century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes, "most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely e to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations," which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Natural phenomena such as solar variation combined with volcanoes have probably had a small warming effect from pre-instrial times to 1950, but a cooling effect since 1950. The basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the national academies of science of the major instrialized countries. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists is the only scientific society that rejects these conclusions, and a few indivial scientists also disagree with parts of them.
Climate models referenced by the IPCC project that global surface temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) between 1990 and 2100. The range of values reflects the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions and results of models with differences in climate sensitivity. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100, warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a millennium even if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized. This reflects the large heat capacity of the oceans.
Green paper of climate change
英文：Excellencies,distinguished officials,ladies and gentlemen,Good morning!I am Li Bingbing,goodwill ambassador for the United Nations Environment Program.I am pleased to be here today because,like many of you,I deeply care about climate change.And I am keen to see leaders take immediate and ambitious action.Carbon emissions are at unprecedented levels.Human activity and consumer demand are causing so much devastation,including the illegal trade in wild life,another serious concern of mine.However,I remain optimistic that this climate summit will be about action and solutions as we pursue our common goals of low carbon economy.We have an expression in Chinese,"有志者事竟成".This means "where there is a will,there is a way".Young people around the world are so eager to see leaders take action on climate change and asking hard questions.The "Why / Why not" campaign" of "Climate Reality Project" asked the young people to submit additional videos asking those questions for a chance to attend this summit.2,500 videos were submitted from more than 80 countries.The seven winners are here today.And the film you are about to see highlight some of their questions.Thank you for your kind attention.
Global warming tops our list of science stories in 2007. Scientists say there is new evidence that the polar ice caps are melting at a faster pace. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says it is 90 percent certain that human activity is linked to rising temperatures.
Panel Chairman Rajendra Pachauri explains, "...what you have is solid scientific evidence."
Pachauri's U.N. panel shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, who said, "I'm going to speak an inconvenient truth, My own country is principally responsible for obstructing progress here in Bali. We all know that."
Gore's Academy Awarding winning film, An Inconvenient Truth, documents the effects of climate change.
In other news, scientists uncovered a previously unknown, human settlement around Stonehenge, announced a new theory on the building of the Pyramids, and put King Tut on public display for the first time in 3,000 years.
Scientists also had a remarkable discovery in Kenya - a 10 million year old jaw bone that may link mankind to the great apes.
And in the fossil of a T-Rex, American researchers decoded soft tissue proteins linking the monstrous reptile to birds.
Japan and China jumped into the space race in 2007, both launching their first lunar probes. NASA shared 3-D (three dimensional) images of the sun, and with three shuttle missions, stepped up construction of the International Space Station. Mechanical problems halted a fourth shuttle launch in December, but station construction resumes in 2008.
The Oxfam report, called Climate Alarm, says natural disasters have risen from 120 annually in the 1980s to as many as 500 today.
The report notes that while crises such as the African famines of the early 1980s, the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991 and the Asian tsunami caused an enormous loss of life, the new worrying trend is the increase in small to medium-sized disasters.
The report's author, John Magrath, says most of these disasters now occur at unusual times.
"We think that 2007 has been a particularly bad year and also particularly strange year because of the unprecedented nature of many of these disasters. We are talking about some very unusual floods in West Africa, very unusual floods in East Africa, extraordinary floods in Mexico and parts of Central America, and heat waves in Greece, eastern Europe," said Magrath.
One short disaster after another, even if relatively small, the report warns, can push poor people and communities into a downward spiral from which it is very difficult to recover. It says the tendency of rich countries is to prioritize their aid spending on more high-profile emergencies. They also focus on countries that are seen as being in line with their foreign policy priorities, the report says.
Magrath says the people who are least responsible for climate change are the ones most adversely affected by it.
"There is a basic global injustice in this. It seems to us that the rich nations of this earth have the historical responsibility to act first and fastest to rece greenhouse gas emissions to show an example and to lead the way," he added. "They also have the capability to do it and to begin to switch away from fossil fuels, to renewable energy, there is a huge potential for that, a huge market for that, it is about time some leadership was shown."
Magrath expressed hope that the United Nations Climate Change conference set for Bali in December will present developed countries with an opportunity to seriously address climate change issues.
In Al Gore's movie, An Inconvenient Truth, the dangers presented by global warming are shown in graphic fashion, with photos, maps and charts. In his view, there is no time to lose in addressing global warming.
GORE: "That is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth."
The poster and cover art for the movie show a huge hurricane coming out of a smoke stack. But that image and much of what Al Gore presents in the film is rejected by one of the most respected men in the field of climate studies in the United States.
William Gray, 77, the principal force behind the annual hurricane forecasts done by Colorado State University's School of Atmospheric Science, has little good to say about Gore and his movie.
"He is making statements that I could never make. He is making assumptions that are just not true. I think there are many factual errors in his movie," he said.
Gray rejects Gore's assertion that hurricanes are becoming more frequent and more intense as a result of global warming. A number of other scientists, even some who support Gore's position in general, have also questioned some of the claims made in the movie.
But not William Gray. He does not dispute that the world is warming, but he does not see it as a crisis and he does not think emissions of CO2, methane and other gases have much to do with it.
"Yes, we have seen some global warming. I think it is primarily natural e to the global ocean circulation features," he added.
Gray says the current warming trend is part of a natural cycle and that the world may soon enter a cooling phase.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently reported that climate change is accelerating even faster than had previously been predicted, adding to the urgent need to take action. But Gray and other critics say these predictions are based on unreliable computer models. He says the IPCC has a political agenda and that skeptics are kept out of the discussion.
"The IPCC and all these reports, I have been over 55 years working in the field and they never have come to me one time," he said. "I have just been isolated and I know other colleagues of mine, who I respect for their knowledge. They never consulted them either. If they know how you think, they just leave you alone and go on."
IPCC scientists reject such characterization of their consensus view and defend computer modeling as a way of understanding how greenhouse gases are affecting climate.
Gray believes the cutbacks in fossil fuel use advocated by the consensus scientists would hurt the economies of the United States and other instrialized nations and, in the end, do little or nothing to stop global warming. He says all the attention focused on global warming is distracting people from the world's real problems.
"We have so many other important problems around the world that are much more critical," he explained. "For instance, poverty, AIDS, terrorism, all these problems we have in the world. To me this global warming is sort of a red herring. They have been saying it is the greatest problem facing mankind now. That is a gross exaggeration."
William Gray plans to write a book to refute Gore's and other global warming activists' arguments. He says he and other skeptics have been shunted aside and dismissed as "global warming deniers." Critics also claim the skeptics are financed by large oil companies, but William Gray says he has never taken any money from the energy instry.
While he may not have convinced some of the scientists who believe in human-inced global warming, he may yet have a chance to make his case. Some scientists from the global warming camp are now saying that debate should be allowed. As Gray and other skeptics have argued, science is advanced through constant questioning and testing of hypotheses, not by consensus.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" (UNFCCC) in the first paragraph, the words "climate change" is defined as: "After a considerable period of time of observation, in addition to natural climate change by human activities, either directly or indirectly caused by changes in global atmospheric composition of climate change. "UNFCCC will therefore be a result of human activities change the atmospheric composition of the" climate change "and attributed to natural causes" climate variability "to distinguish. Climate change (climate change) are mainly manifested in three areas: global warming (Global Warming), acid rain (Acid Depostion), ozone depletion (Ozone Depletion), in which global warming is mankind's most pressing problems related to human Future!
Caused by climate change, what are the reasons?
Climate change may be e to natural internal processes or external forcing, or artificially sustained components of the atmosphere and land-use change. Both natural factors, but also some of the factors. In the man-made factors, mainly e to human activities since the Instrial Revolution, especially the process of instrialization in developed countries caused by economic activities. Fossil fuel burning and deforestation, land-use change, greenhouse gas emissions from human activities led to a substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, enhance the greenhouse effect, causing global warming. According to the U.S. Oak Ridge laboratory studies report that since 1750, global cumulative emissions of more than 1 trillion tons of carbon dioxide emissions in developed countries which account for about 80%. What are the implications of climate change will bring? Climate change, leading to frequent catastrophic weather events, accelerated melting of glaciers and snow cover, water distribution imbalances, biodiversity is under threat. Climate change is also caused by sea-level rise, coastal areas subject to floods, storms and other natural disasters is even more serious, small island states and low-lying coastal areas even facing the threat of being submerged. Of climate change on agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and other economic and social activities will have a negative impact, exacerbating the spread of disease, threatening the socio-economic development and people's health. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, if temperatures rise by more than 2.5 ℃, all regions are vulnerable to the adverse effects of the loss suffered particularly severe in developing countries; if temperature 4 ℃, the global ecosystem may not cause any irreversible damage, causing heavy losses to the global economy. According to China in 2006 "issued by National Assessment Report on Climate Change," the impact of climate change on China's focus on agriculture, water resources, natural ecosystems and coastal zones, etc., may lead to increased instability in agricultural proction, flooding the southern region heavier the north intensified conflicts between water supply and demand, forest and grassland ecosystems, such as degradation, biological disasters hair, rection of biodiversity, frequent typhoons and storm surges, coastal zone disaster intensified on major project construction and operation of security has been affected .
During the last thirty years, the economy of the world has increased sharply, so it is the same with the temperature. Global warming is an extremely serious problem facing the world today.
As we all know that there is atmosphere around the earth, which is mainly composed of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. More and more carbon dioxide from burning the coal and oil is discharged into the air every year. The carbon dioxide can absorb the heat from the earth. The more carbon dioxide in the air, the more heat it will absorb, and the warmer the earth will be.
Since the instrial revolution, coal and fossil oil have begun wildly used. However, that kind of energy will proce plenty of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and so on. That’s may be one of the reasons causes the earth to be warmer. Ruining the forest is also accelerating the process of the global warming.
If we still turn a blind eye to it, we and our offspring will be punished by nature. Actually, we have been punished by the nature now. The rainstorm in China in 1998 caused hundreds of millions financial loss and millions of homeless. The ice damage caused by the La Nina in 2008 let several millions trapped in the train ring the Spring Festival. The hurricane in New Orleans in 2005 forced several million people to shift. What’s worse, couples of them died. Ecologist says because of global warming there are more and more coral will die. The inland country will be drier because of the El Ni
Global warming will cause temperatures with the north, which led to corresponding changes in atmospheric motion, the global precipitation will subsequently change. In general, the low-latitude regions, the existing precipitation will increase with the rain, snowfall in winter at high latitudes will increase, while the mid-latitudes in summer precipitation will be reced. For most of the arid and semi-arid regions, increased precipitation is beneficial. As for the rection in precipitation, such as central North America, northwest China inland, the summer rainfall will decrease because of increased drought and water even more tense. It is estimated considering the water in the thermal expansion, e to increased precipitation led to the Antarctic Polar